Sometimes, you will see 3 black and 3 white wires from your outlet. Don’t worry, as this kind of wiring is normal and safe. Knowing the function of the wires will increase your confidence in dealing with them.
The three black and three white wires indicate that the outlet is in the middle of a series circuit. It is because the circuit collects electricity from one source and sends it to the other one. So, the 3 black wires are the hot wires, and the 3 white wires are the neutral wires.
Seeing an outlet or receptacle with more than one wire is a common wire setting. In this article, we will discuss the reasons behind having 3 black and 3 white wires and how you can wire them together in an outlet.
Why does my outlet have 3 black wires and 3 white wires?
There is nothing wrong with an outlet having more than one set of black and white wires.
If you have such an outlet, you should know the wires’ impact to gather confidence while dealing with them.
The live and neutral wires are needed to operate a circuit.
If you have three black and three white wires, the three black wires will serve as the hot or live wires, and the three white will be the neutral wires.
The live wire will help bring the current into the circuit, whereas the white wire will send it out and complete the entire circuit.
This kind of wire setting is mostly seen in the 240-volt outlets used for heavy-duty appliances like dryers and ranges.
Having more than two wires in your outlet allows multiple outlets to use the same electric current.
The outlet is wired in series and will have more than one light fixture or switch to draw current from the breaker panel.
An outlet will have more than two wires connected in the middle of the circuit, called a middle-of-the-run circuit.
One set of black wires will supply electric current to the light fixture, and the white wire set will complete the circuit and go to the next outlet.
Sometimes, there might be another wire called a ground or bare wire. The discussion about these wires is ignored as it does not have any current.
But this wire can create an alternate path for current flow when there is a short circuit and saves you from electric shocks.
Also read: Can you have 3 sets of wire in one outlet?
Is it safe to have 3 black wires and 3 white wires?
It is fine for an outlet to have 3 black and 3 white wires, provided each wire is properly connected to the right terminal and well-insulated to prevent contact with the other wiring.
An outlet helps in receiving electrical current from the breaker panel or the previous outlet.
It is used to power an appliance and return the unused power to the breaker panel.
The current enters through the black wire through the other outlets and returns through the white wire to the panel.
For heavy-duty appliances, an outlet with 3 black and 3 white wires is better and safe.
However, the wires should be properly connected to the correct terminal using screw-in panels, insulators, and covers.
Maximum panels have recessed screw-in holes, snap-over covers, and secure screws to ensure no wires remain exposed or have accidental contact.
Can I nut the wires together?
When two or more wires are combined to carry electricity in a building, the process is called splicing.
Though the activity is simple, the electrical system will be unsafe and unstable if the connection is incomplete. There will be further risks of fire and shock.
If you wish to add more than two wires, you can use a jumper or wire nuts.
A wire nut is one of the safest ways to combine three wires.
It can tell you how many numbers and sizes of wires you can put together in each wire nut.
When an outlet has more than 2 wires twisted together, check whether the number of wires in the outlet can stay straight when other wires are around them.
If there is a possibility, the straight wires will be easier to pull out and free themselves from splicing.
How to wire an outlet with 3 black wires and 3 white wires?
Wiring an outlet with 3 black and 3 white wires is relatively easy.
Still, you need proper experience and should follow precautionary steps.
It would be best to disconnect the old outlet first before replacing a 3-wire outlet.
Locate the main circuit breaker in the electrical panel and turn it off.
The breaker will be in the topmost place in the panel, with the highest amperage from the other breakers inside the house.
Find the terminal screws and expose them by pulling the outlet out from the box.
Wire test the outlet with a multimeter to ensure it is not powered.
Hold the multimeter and press all the black wires against the black probe’s tip.
Also, press all the white wires against the white probe.
If there is no reading, you are ready to start the project.
Use an outlet the same as the electric outlet you have previously removed.
Remove the outlet cover and unscrew each terminal screw.
The black wires are for the brass terminals, and the white wires should be connected to the silver terminal clockwise.
Tuck the wires inside the outlet and mount the outlet in the outlet box with the screws coming with it.
Now, replace the cover plate on the outlet.
Once you have finished the wiring, switch on the circuit breaker at the main panel.
Test the circuit with a 110-volt appliance to check it is functioning properly.
3 black and 3 white wires in a GFCI
GFCI stands for Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter.
The outlet shuts off immediately after it senses an overload and prevents short circuits.
GFCI is preferred in moisture areas like the kitchen, laundry rooms, bathrooms, and basements.
The wiring of the GFCI will differ from one manufacturer to another. But all follow the same guidelines.
GFCI outlets containing 6 wires will have three similar wires, and the others will have a variant pair.
Sometimes, the outlet will not have any ground wire.
If it has three black and three white wires, it contains three live and three neutral wires.
You need to connect the black wires to the brass terminals and the white ones to the silver terminals.
If there is any green wire, connect it to the green ground terminal at the bottom of the outlet.
How to wire a GFCI outlet with 3 black and 3 white wires?
Wiring a GFCI outlet involves the following steps:
- Ensure you have turned off the panel controlling the circuit to avoid electric shocks.
- If the breaker is not labeled, put a lamp or clock radio in your wiring outlet to identify the right wires.
- Once you find the right circuit, mark it with tape.
- Check the outlet with a tester to ensure the power is off.
- Remove the receptacle’s cover plate, unscrew the outlet, and disconnect the wires from the outlet.
- Strip the power supply wires and reattach them to the LINE terminals.
- Connect the black wires to the brass screw and the white wires to the silver screw terminal. Connect the green to the bare ground screw.
- Fasten the outlet back in the box, replace it, and screw the cover plate.
- Turn on the power at the circuit panel and connect a clock radio or a lamp to the outlet for a power check.
- Press the TEST button. If the lamp or the radio goes off, your outlet is working.
- Reset the outlet by pressing the reset button. Keep pressing until you hear a click. Your lamp or radio should turn on.
In some outlets, you can remove the wire ends and place them in the push-in holes on the outlet’s back. It is called backstabbing.
However, backstabbing is not recommended as it can be dangerous.
It will create a bond between the circuits, and some hot wires may remain on in some breakers.
Another way of wiring GFCI with 3 black and 3 white wires
If you want all the wires in the same outlet:
- Turn off the power at the main panel for safety purposes.
- Connect the hot black and white neutral wires to the LINE terminals.
- Cut a short piece of the white and black wire and connect them to the LOAD terminals.
- Connect the other ends of the short black and other black wires with a wire nut.
- Repeat the same process with the white wires.
- Connect a lamp or radio and press the TEST button for checking.
- If they work, turn on the power and reset your GFCI outlet.
- Can Ground And Neutral Be Connected Together?
- Can Live And Neutral Be Connected Together?
- Can You Have Outlets And Lights On The Same Circuit?
Do not panic if you see 3 black and 3 white wires in an outlet. The setting is quite common. It indicates that your outlet is in the middle of a circuit and wired in series. You will see this type of wiring in the 240-volt outlets needed by heavy-duty appliances like dryers.
The black wires help bring the electrical flow into the outlet, and the white wires bring it out and send it to the next outlet. The presence of six wires in an outlet is safe as long as the wires are connected to the right terminals. The black wires should be wires to the brass terminals, and the white wires to the silver terminals.
Wrong terminals can lead to short circuits and fire hazards. Some GFCIs will also have the same setting. Unlike normal outlets, GFCIs sometimes do not have a ground wire. The ground wire is used for safety as it creates an alternate path for the current flow during short circuits. If you have a green or bare wire, connect it to the green ground screw.
How many wires should be in one outlet?
The electrical engineers specify that a maximum of six wires should be present in each outlet. If you have multiple wires in an outlet, you should have multiple outlets, each using the same current.
Can I pigtail an outlet?
Yes, you can pigtail an outlet by connecting the two ends of one wire with another. It gives extra space in the outlet box and prevents the wires from touching other things. Getting it done by a professional is highly recommended.
Reference: Electrical Wiring Wikipedia, Home wiring Wikipedia.